Environmental Studies

Custodians of the land: ecology & culture in the history of by Gregory Maddox

By Gregory Maddox

Farming and pastoral societies inhabit ever-changing environments. This courting among surroundings and rural tradition, politics and economic system in Tanzania is the topic of this quantity so as to be invaluable in reopening debates on Tanzanian history.

In his end, Isaria N. Kimambo, a founder of Tanzanian historical past, displays at the efforts of successive historians to strike a stability among exterior factors of switch and native initiative of their interpretations of Tanzanian history.

He exhibits that nationalist and Marxist historians of Tanzanian heritage, understandably preoccupied throughout the first quarter-century of the country's post-colonial background with the impression of imperialism and capitalism on East Africa, tended to miss the tasks taken by means of rural societies to rework themselves.

Yet there's solid cause of historians to contemplate the reasons of swap and innovation within the rural groups of Tanzania, simply because farming and pastoral humans have continuously replaced as they adjusted to moving environmental conditions.

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Andrew Coulson, Tanzania: A Political Economy (Oxford, 1982), p. 27. 5. 'Capitalist relations in Tanzania were not part of the process of organic development of the Tanzanian society. They were introduced as a result of imperialist invasion and subsequent colonization of the country. ' Issa G. Shivji, Law, State and the Working Class in Tanzania, 19201984 (London, Portsmouth, NH, and Dar es Salaam, 1986), p. 239. 6. Goran Hyden, Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an Uncaptured Peasantry (London, 1980); Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Food Insecurity and the Social Division of Labour in Tanzania, 19191985 (New York, 1990); and John Sender and Sheila Smith, Poverty, Class and Gender in Rural Africa: A Tanzanian Case Study (London, 1990).

Kimambo, Isaria N. IV. Series: Eastern African studies. 7'009678dc20CIP Typeset in 10/11 Baskerville by Colset Pte Ltd, Singapore Printed in Britain by Villiers Publications, London N3 Page v CONTENTS List of Maps, Figures & Tables viii List of Photographs ix Abbreviations x Contributors xi Acknowledgements xiii Introduction Custodians of the Land Ecology & Culture in the History of Tanzania James Giblin & Gregory Maddox 1 Part One Environmental & Demographic Change Introduction 15 One Population A Dependent Variable Juhani Koponen 19 Two Environment & Population Growth In Ugogo, Central Tanzania 43 Page vi Part Two Environmental Change & Economic History In Tanzania's Northern Highlands Introduction 67 Three Environmental Control & Hunger In the Mountains & Plains of Northeastern Tanzania Isaria N.

Throughout A Modern History, one encounters Tanzanians of the colonial period struggling through what Iliffe had earlier termed 'the age of improvement'8 to come to terms with the new world of imperial politics, science and capitalism. Iliffe, like other nationalist historians of the 1960s who borrowed the concept of 'enlargement of scale' (see Page 5 Kimambo, 'Concluding Essay,' in this volume), was strongly influenced by the social anthropologists Godfrey and Monica Wilson. The Wilsons believed that when African societies were integrated into colonial systems they underwent 'expansion of historical scale', a process which exposed them to the stimulus of outside influences.

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