Pediatrics

Child anxiety disorders : a guide to research and treatment by Deborah C. Beidel

By Deborah C. Beidel

Baby anxiousness problems, 2d variation, gains sections on pharmacological and mental interventions, sleep and anxiousness problems, and race, ethnic, and cultural elements within the quarter of formative years nervousness problems. An advent to kid's fears -- An creation to early life anxiousness problems -- Developmental issues -- Etiological components within the improvement of hysteria problems -- Sleep and nervousness issues in little ones -- over the top fear and generalized anxiousness disease -- particular phobia -- college refusal -- Separation nervousness disease -- Social nervousness ailment and selective mutism -- Obsessive-compulsive sickness and trichotillomania -- Panic disease -- Posttraumatic rigidity ailment

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However, childhood fears apparently have a much longer history; even Hippocrates (460–370bc) described the existence of fears in young children (Treffers & Silverman, 2001). Yet, prior to the 19th century, little attention was paid to childhood fears until the introduction of the book On the Mental Peculiarities and Mental Disorders of Childhood (West, 1860, cited in Treffers & Silverman, 2001). Since the 1980s, there has been growing interest; in the last quarter century, there has been enormous attention to the substantive issues of the psychopathology and treatment of childhood anxiety disorder.

If a child needs surgery, for example, a parent cannot wait to see if the child will outgrow a fear of needles or doctors. Therefore, the challenge to parents, educators, and health care professionals is to decide when a fear is a problem, even if it is not acknowledged as such by the child. Is the fear out of proportion to the demands of the situation? Some anxiety before a final exam would be considered normal. However, fear so severe that it inhibits the ability to study, causes nausea or vomiting on the morning of the exam, or makes the child forget all the answers that were so well known the previous night would be considered out of proportion to the situation.

Anxiety frequently is present prior to the onset of depression (Strauss, Last, Hersen, & Kazdin, 1988). In addition, when both disorders are present, the overall symptom picture and functional impairment are more severe. 2 Comorbidity Rates for Samples of Children Diagnosed With a Primary Anxiety Disorder Age of Sample (years) Overall Percentage With Comorbidity Type and Percentage of Comorbidity Essau et al. 5 Ginsburg & Silverman (1996) Hispanic subsample Caucasian subsample Kendall et al. (2001) 6–17 9–13 91 83 79 Silverman, Saavedra, & Pina (2001) 7–16 67 Study Kendall et al.

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