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Chemistry of Modern Papermaking by Cornel Hagiopol

By Cornel Hagiopol

"Chemistry of recent Papermaking provides a chemist's viewpoint at the papermaking procedure. With approximately three% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemical compounds, paper makers can alter the rate and potency of the method, reduce and reuse surplus fabrics, and differentiate a paper product as required through particular buyers. With study and improvement scattered throughout educational journals or

"Foreword Readers of this booklet are in for a pleased adventure! The authors of Chemistry of recent Papermaking in actual fact have a profound enthusiasm for his or her subject material, of which they care approximately deeply and wish to proportion with their viewers. even though there were different textbooks facing the chemistry of papermaking, this e-book achieves an enormous new milestone in bringing jointly a wealth of perception in regards to the chemical options which may have useful use in a cutting-edge papermaking facility. by no means earlier than has a textbook compiled, rigorously digested, and lucidly defined one of these deep number of information from either the patent and clinical literature. This synthesis is accomplished not just via diligent paintings, but in addition displays the years of commercial adventure of the authors. Readers also will quick come to recognize Hagiopol and Johnston's presents for teaching--especially the instructing of chemistry. because the authors themselves nation extra successfully of their publication, one of many very important ideas of the chemistry of papermaking is that of "leveraging." With generally basically approximately three% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemical substances, the papermaker can in attaining dramatic results. at the one hand, she or he can vastly raise the potency of the process--including the construction cost. for example, via retention aids, the potency of holding advantageous debris within the paper might be stronger. not just does this support to reduce wasted fabrics, however it additionally is helping papermakers to prevent major discharges of waterborne elements as liquid effluent. An optimized wet-end chemistry application may also in achieving larger premiums of water removing, which regularly permits papermakers to hurry up the process"--Provided via publisher. Read more...

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7 shows that it is hard to separate between samples even if only 20% errors are considered (differences of 33%—200 and 300 s for HST are considered “as consistent with normal run-to-run variation” [522]). The samples are equivalent within those experimental errors. That is also valid for the hydrocarbon resin dispersions used as surface size [523]. On the other hand, this type of experimental data is very common in paper testing and the scientist must accept it as such for a while. Eventually, the authors’ honesty is always the preferable approach: as in the case of Espy [524]: “The plot of the paper wet strength vs.

Styrene-acrylic acid and styrene–maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymers are widely used as paper chemicals. Some comonomers are effective even at low concentrations. Paper chemicals (such as retention aids) have a very low concentration of one comonomer (lower than 5% of cationic comonomer), but that amount is critical for the copolymer performances. It is not easy to synthesize such copolymers with low concentrations of comonomer, which should be evenly distributed to all macromolecules. It is also challenging to estimate the small concentration of the comonomer by elemental or spectral analysis [430].

The effectiveness of the dispersed (co)polymer depends less on molecular characteristics (molecular weight) and more on particle sizes (smaller particles result in larger number of particles tending to reach the molecular level for homogeneous systems), and the surface functional groups. Polymer latexes are also made by emulsifying, in water, the preexisting polymer brought into a solution in an organic solvent (such as toluene), in the presence of emulsifier followed by the distillation of the solvent [433].

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