Environmental Studies

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment by Harold F. Hemond

By Harold F. Hemond

The 3rd variation of Chemical destiny and shipping within the Environment explains the basic rules of mass delivery, chemical partitioning, and chemical/biological alterations in floor waters, in soil and groundwater, and in air. each one of those 3 significant environmental media is brought by way of descriptive overviews, by way of a presentation of the controlling actual, chemical, and organic tactics. The textual content emphasizes intuitively dependent mathematical versions for chemical delivery and adjustments within the setting, and serves either as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate classes in environmental technology and engineering, and as a regular reference for environmental practitioners.

  • Includes many labored examples in addition to wide workouts on the finish of every chapter
  • Illustrates the interconnections and similarities between environmental media via its assurance of floor waters, the subsurface, and the atmosphere
  • Written and arranged concisely to map to a single-semester course
  • Discusses and builds upon primary concepts, ensuring that the cloth is out there to readers who do not need an intensive heritage in environmental science

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Extra resources for Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment

Example text

19) where C is the concentration of the parent atoms that undergo the reaction [M/L3], t is the time [T], and k is the rate constant [TÀ1]. 6 BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 39 proportional to the chemical’s concentration raised to the first power. The solution to the differential equation shown in Eq. , at time t equals 0) of the parent chemical [M/L3], k is the rate constant [TÀ1], and t is time [T]. , in the absence of other sources or reactions, the concentration of the parent chemical decreases exponentially with time).

These three conditions for n are illustrated in Fig. 12. 52 1. 12 Freundlich isotherms having exponents less than, equal to, and greater than one. An exponent of one corresponds to a linear isotherm, in which case the relationship between the aqueous concentration of a chemical and the chemical’s concentration on a solid phase at equilibrium with the water can be described by a single partition coefficient. If the exponent is less than one, the ratio of sorbed concentration to aqueous concentration decreases as the chemical concentration in the system increases.

For example, catalytic converters contain platinum or palladium to catalyze the oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons in automobile engine exhaust. When the catalyst is hot, the oxidation to carbon dioxide is rapid enough that it is essentially complete in a fraction of a second, which is necessary given the short residence time of exhaust gas in the converter. Catalysts are absolutely essential to life. Living organisms rely on enzymes, proteins having catalytic capabilities, to enable almost all of their chemical processes.

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