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Chemical Bonds and Bond Energy by R. T. Sanderson

By R. T. Sanderson

Chemical Bond actual Chemistry sequence

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Unfortunately, the calculation of screening constants or of effective nuclear charge from first principles would be as impossible as most calculations that deal with the interactions of many particles. But the concept of electronegativity being proportional to the coulombic attraction between an atomic nucleus and an electron occupying an outermost orbital is certainly qualitatively sound. As a basis for visualization, it is very satisfactory. We can easily picture an electron approach­ ing the outermost vacancy of an atom and recognize that it must be repelled by all the electrons already there but attracted by the nucleus.

This gave a somewhat different set of radii of the M8 atoms. It later became evident that these radii are actually hypothetical radii of "ions having zero charge" and thus not directly comparable to other types of radii. However, they were useful in calculat­ ing electronic densities of the M8 atoms, which were found to be low relative to most of the active elements but variable within the group. If relative compactness varies with electronegativity, what was the meaning of variations in elements having no electronegativity?

When atoms come near to one another, the closest contact is made by the outermost electrons. Therefore the behavior of the atoms when in close proximity must depend largely on the nature of their outermost principal quantum levels, which can be translated into number of outermost electrons and vacancies. ATOMIC PROPERTIES Valence The principal information available from a knowledge of the electronic configuration of an atom is its combining capacity, known loosely as its valence. From the familiar example of the H 2 molecule, we recognize the essentials for the formation of a covalent bond: each atom must supply one outermost half-filled orbital (one unpaired electron and one vacancy).

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