Environmental Engineering

Biomass to renewable energy processes by Jay Cheng

By Jay Cheng

"Continuously elevated intake of fossil fuels, reduced availability of simply obtainable fossil fuels, major contributions to weather switch and wildly fluctuating fuels costs have mixed to problem the reliability and sustainability of our present power provide. a potential method to this strength problem, biomass strength construction, seriously depending on sugarcane and corn construction, is Read more...

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Explains the theories of organic strategies and conversion applied sciences for bioenergy items corresponding to biogas, ethanol, and artificial gases. This publication discusses anaerobic digestion of waste Read more...

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08%, respectively (USDA, 2008). 4), native to the tropical parts of South America, is another starch-based perennial crop that has attracted attention as a food source since late 1980s. 3 million tons in 2007, 80% of which came from China. In the United States, North Carolina is the leading state in sweet potato production. In 2007, North Carolina accounted for nearly 40% of total sweet potato production in the United States (FAO, 2008). Approximately 80%–90% of the dry weight of sweet potato is carbohydrates (60%–70% starch and 10%–20% simple sugars).

This origin is quite appropriate since starch has historically been used as a glue and a sizing agent in early paper production. The major sources for starch production vary geographically and include rice, wheat, potatoes, and corn. In addition to being an integral part of the human diet, applications of starches include use as a thickening agent in its basic form, production of adhesives, paper, and textiles and as a feedstock for the chemical and bioethanol industry. Starch is typically stored as granules in roots, tubers, fruits, and seeds.

Cellulose I is the native form in which individual chains are organized parallel to each other. Two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonding occur within the same chain. The first type is between the endocyclic oxygen (oxygen atom in the ring) and the hydrogen atom in the OH group of the C3 carbon (of a neighboring glucose). The second type is between the oxygen atom in the OH group of the C6 carbon and the hydrogen atom in the OH group of the C2 carbon (of a neighboring glucose). Between cellulose chains, there is a single intermolecular hydrogen bond between the hydrogen atom in the OH group of the C6 carbon and the oxygen atom in the OH group of the C3 carbon atom.

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