Environmental Engineering

Biofuels: Production, Application and Development (Cabi) by Alan Scragg

By Alan Scragg

Delivering the world's transforming into inhabitants with its expanding calls for for strength is a huge problem for technology, enterprise and society alike. strength should be generated from many assets, yet no longer all assets are compatible for each program. a lot of ultra-modern expertise has been equipped on good, liquid and gaseous fuels derived from fossil assets. in spite of the fact that, the provision of those is finite and their combustion produces carbon dioxide, one of many gases answerable for worldwide warming. for this reason, replacement assets of power are required that are renewable, sustainable and carbon neutral.This textbook explores the creation of biofuels as possible choices to fossil fuels, concentrating on the technological concerns that must be addressed for any new gasoline resource. every one form of biofuel presently in creation is taken into account intimately, protecting the advantages and issues of creation and use and the opportunity of organic fabric to supply adequate power for the world's inhabitants - the foundations on which destiny gasoline improvement are dependent.

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Additional info for Biofuels: Production, Application and Development (Cabi)

Example text

The burning of fossil fuels oil, coal and gas releases carbon dioxide trapped by plants and animals millions of years ago (Fig. 3). The overall pattern of greenhouse gas production worldwide is shown in Fig. 4, where the major source of carbon dioxide is energy utilization. Carbon dioxide is also produced with land use change such as deforestation and cultivation. The major source of methane and nitrous oxide is agriculture. B. H. Tyndall measured the heat adsorbed by carbon dioxide. 2 359 CO2 reservoir in oceans 40,000 Soil 787 Carbonate rocks and coral reefs Plant and animal remains Fossil fuel 20,000 Fig.

Another term used for non-fossil energy sources is ‘carbon-neutral’ which means that either the energy production yields no carbon dioxide, such as solar and nuclear power, or the process only releases carbon dioxide previously fixed through photosynthesis. In determining the carbon dioxide reduction for renewable energy sources, life-cycle analysis will determine the fossil fuel input into the production of the fuel and carbon dioxide produced. These must be taken into consideration when the carbon dioxide savings are determined for some biofuels, which may be less than 100% carbon-neutral.

Low-level blending is the easiest method of introducing biofuels, but sufficient volumes for anything more than 5% addition are not available. Niche markets are available for biofuels in areas of environmental sensitivity. Oil companies are more supportive of biodiesel than bioethanol. Environmental impacts and carbon balances vary between biofuels, and there have been some questions about bioethanol. A fuel certification system is needed for sustainability and fuel composition. Support for biodiesel and bioethanol does not stop other technologies from being developed.

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