Plants

Beta maritima: The Origin of Beets by Enrico Biancardi

By Enrico Biancardi

Along the undisturbed beaches, particularly of the Mediterranean Sea and the eu North Atlantic Ocean, is a fairly common plant known as Beta maritima by means of botanists, or probably sea beet. not anything, for the green observer's eye, distinguishes it from surrounding wild crops. regardless of its inconspicuous and approximately invisible plants, the plant has had and should have necessary fiscal and medical value. certainly, in line with Linnè, it really is thought of "the progenitor of the beet plants almost certainly born from Beta maritima in a few overseas country". fresh molecular learn proven this lineage. choice utilized after domestication has created many cultivated forms with various locations. The wild plant consistently has been harvested and used either for nutrition and as a medicinal herb. Sea beet crosses simply with the cultivated varieties. This enables the transmission of genetic characteristics misplaced in the course of domestication, which choice techniques aimed in basic terms at positive aspects instantly helpful to farmers and shoppers can have depleted. certainly, as with numerous crop wild kinfolk, Beta maritima has been effectively used to enhance cultivated beet’s genetic resistances opposed to many illnesses and pests. in truth, sugar beet cultivation at present will be very unlikely in lots of nations with no the restoration of features preserved within the wild germplasm.

Dr. Enrico Biancardi graduated from Bologna college. From 1977 till 2009, he used to be enthusiastic about sugar beet breeding job via the Istituto Sperimentale in keeping with le Colture Industriali (ISCI) previously Stazione Sperimentale di Bieticoltura (Rovigo, Italy), the place he published rhizomania and cercospora resistant germplasm and picked up seeds of Mediterranean sea beet populations as a genetic source for breeding and ex situ conservation. Retired when you consider that 2009, he nonetheless collaborates with numerous operating breeders, particularly, on the USDA Agricultural learn Stations, on the chinese language Academy of Agricultural technological know-how (CAAS), and on the Athens college (AUA). He has edited books, books chapters and authored greater than a hundred and fifty papers.

Dr. Lee Panella is a plant breeder and geneticist with the USDA-ARS at castle Collins, Colorado. He earned his B.S. in Crop and Soil technological know-how from Michigan nation collage, an M.S. in Plant Breeding from Texas A&M collage, and a Ph.D. in genetics from the collage of California at Davis. His learn concentration is constructing illness resistant germplasm utilizing sugar beet wild kinfolk. he's chairman of the USDA-ARS Sugar Beet Crop Germplasm Committee and has accumulated and labored broadly with sea beet.

Dr. Robert T. Lewellen used to be raised on a ranch in jap Oregon and got a B.S. in Crop technological know-how from Oregon country collage by means of a Ph.D. from Montana nation college in Genetics. From 1966 to 2008 he used to be a learn geneticist for the USDA-ARS at Salinas, California, the place he studied the genetics of sugar beet and as a plant breeder, frequently used sea beet as a genetic resource to supply many pest and disorder resistant sugar beet germplasm and parental strains, whereas authoring greater than a hundred publications.

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Von Proskowetz (1895) also noted that sea beet was an excellent example of the theory of mutation. The equivalence between the two species later was criticized by Coons (1975), which exemplified the evident morphological and physiological differences. According to von Proskowetz (1895), Beta trigyna (Fig. 35) was a cultivated beet returned to the wild. 4. Ottavio Munerati (Fig. 36) founded in 1913 the “Regia Stazione Sperimentale di Bieticoltura” at Rovigo, Italy. He initiated experiments on B.

Maritima of the Po Delta, from which Munerati et al. (1913) isolated the resistance to CLS deserves to be mentioned briefly (Sect. 8). When Beguinot (1910) explored this area, B. maritima was localized close to the salt lagoon separating the mainland from the sea. In the terminal branches of the river, the lower parts of the banks are normally submerged by the tide, which may be very high during winter storms.

The author clearly distinguished B. maritima from Pyrola (Fig. 27), instead of treating them the same, as was done by Bock and Fuchs. The names Beta sylvestris maritima and Beta sylvestris spontanea marina are attributed to Bauhin and de Lobel, respectively. In the treatise were included color illustrations and the description of the characteristics of Beta rubra vel nigra (Fig. 28). Zanichelli (1735) reported the “presence of B. ” This location is near Lio cited by Aldrovandi (Soldano 2003).

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