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AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book by Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max

By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

Fresh, up to date chemistry textual content for the hot AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technology Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complicated examine.

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For example, hydrogen chloride molecules each consist of a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom, joined by a single covalent bond. You can show the bonding in a covalent compound using dot and cross diagrams and displayed formulae, as on the left. Notice that there are three pairs of electrons in the highest occupied energy level of the chlorine atom that are not involved in covalent bonds. These are called lone pairs of electrons. They are important for determining the shape of the molecule, and for some of the chemical properties of the compound.

This means that they can be stretched out to make a wire. Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal of all. 02 mm thick or stretched into a wire over 2 km long. Metals behave like this because layers of metal cations can slide over each other if sufficient force is applied. The metallic bonds stop the structure being completely disrupted unless large forces are applied. Drinks cans are made of aluminium alloyed with magnesium and manganese. This is more easily pressed into shape than pure aluminium.

This is isoelectronic with helium, a noble gas. You can use dot and cross diagrams to show the bonding in molecules. You can also show a covalent bond as a straight line between the two atoms. This sort of diagram is called a displayed formula or graphical formula. H H This dot and cross diagram shows the bonding in a hydrogen molecule, H2. 03_03_AW_01 H I This dot and cross diagram shows the bonding in an iodine molecule, I2. Notice that only the electrons in energy level 5 are shown. 03_01_AW_03 H H N H methane H H O H ammonia Double and triple bonds water H H C H H H N H H H O H The methane molecule does not have a lone pair of electrons.

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