Psychology

Annual Review of Psychology, vol 52 2001 by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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ATTITUDE FORMATION AND ACTIVATION The Expectancy-Value Model Evaluation is known to be a fundamental aspect of any concept’s connotative meaning (Osgood et al 1957). According to the most popular conceptualization of attitude, the expectancy-value model (see Feather 1982, Fishbein 1963, Fishbein & Ajzen 1975), this evaluative meaning arises spontaneously and inevitably as we form beliefs about the object (see Ajzen & Fishbein 2000). Each belief associates the object with a certain attribute, and a person’s overall attitude toward an object is determined by the subjective values of the object’s attributes in interaction with the strength of the associations.

Attitude structure and motivation to process attitude-relevant information were found to be of possible significance in understanding the inconsistent findings. In line with this suggestion, amount of prior knowledge combined with high fear of AIDS was found to bias processing of information relevant to risk estimates, enabling respondents to defend their existing views regarding the risk of contracting AIDS (Biek et al 1996). Attitudes and Values Favorable valences associated with such abstract concepts as freedom and equality are known as values.

College students were exposed to an advertisement for an unfamiliar product under high and low personal relevance conditions, and subsequently their brand attitudes, as well as the response latencies of these attitudes, were assessed. In line with dual-mode processing models, high personal relevance, or involvement, was expected to increase information processing and, consistent with predictions, attitudes formed under conditions of high involvement were found to be significantly more accessible compared to those formed under low levels of involvement.

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