General Reference

An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics by Wolfgang Demtröder

By Wolfgang Demtröder

This advent to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been constructed over the last centuries through many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical aspect by way of the creation of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.

It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and exhibits the boundaries of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its capability for spectroscopy is printed in additional element and particularly lasers as smooth spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.

Many examples and issues of recommendations should still result in the reader to an severe lively cooperation.

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In a gas discharge tube at low pressures, Hittorf observed particle rays emitted from the cathode that followed (without external fields) straight lines, which he could prove by the shadow that was produced on a fluorescent screen when obstacles were put in the path of the cathode rays. From the fact that these particle rays could be deflected by magnetic fields, Hittorf correctly concluded that they must be charged particles and from the direction of the deflection it became clear that they were negatively charged (Fig.

44a) 2 ∆t between particle diffusion flux density and density gradient G. 13) we can also write jdiff as jdiff = ∂n = −D · G . 45a) expressed by the average squared elongation of the particles on their statistical path (Fig. 18). 21 22 2. The Concept of the Atom The diffusion process is due to the kinetic energy of the particles and their collisions in a medium with a density gradient. The influence of collisions can be macroscopically described by the viscosity η. 45b) and therefore the mean square deviation of a particle from its position at time t = 0 in a gas with viscosity η is kT ξ2 = ∆t .

G. Ulbricht, University of Göttingen) surfaces the tunnel current would result in surface charges that alter the potential and therefore the voltage between needle and surface. 22]. However, here it is not the tunnel current that is measured but the force between the atoms of the tip and those at the surface. 23]. 24]. A clean nickel surface at low temperatures was covered by a few Xenon atoms. With the atomic force microscope these atoms were picked up and transported to selected places on the surface, where they were released in such a way that the atoms formed the letters IBM (Fig.

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