Psychology

Alcohol and Speech by Steven B. Chin;David B. Pisoni

By Steven B. Chin;David B. Pisoni

''Alcohol and Speech'' serves as a unmarried, unifying reference resource for these attracted to speech motor results obtrusive within the acoustic checklist, response occasions, speech conversation recommendations, and perceptual judgments. Written via a linguist and a psychologist, the ebook offers an analytic orientation towards speech and alcohol with an emphasis on laboratory-based examine in acoustic-phonetics and speech technology. it's a entire assessment of the consequences of alcohol on speech and compares some of the theoretical matters which shape this learn. stories of either alcohol and speech were infrequent simply because every one box has its personal experimental protocols, methodologies, and study agendas. This booklet fills a long-standing hole and is exclusive in offering either breadth of insurance and intensity of research. A case examine related to the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound develops many of the felony implications of this study. It illustrates a unified point of view for the research of alcohol and speech. It includes the advantage of years of analysis on alcohol and speech. It offers a wealth of analysis to investigators in a wide selection of disciplines: drugs, psychology, speech, forensics, legislations, and human components. It demonstrates how alcohol and speech examine applies in a pragmatic state of affairs: the Exxon Valdez grounding. It contains a thesaurus in addition to a number of tables and graphs for a fast evaluation of knowledge and effects.

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However, if massive growth of interest is in fact illusory, it is nevertheless true that growth of the literature itself is not, and this can be attributed to the approach to research on alcohol and speech taken by investigators since 1985. Just two approaches inform almost all of the research reported in this chapter: acoustic-phonetic and, to a somewhat lesser extent, phoniatriclogopedic. Of the independent research published since 1985, the only work not within one of these two realms is Higgins and Stitzer (1988), which reported on the amount of speech produced by subjects in isolation (without 167 168 7.

1985). Research findings reported in the literature since 1985 thus represent only the tip of the iceberg of possible results; even if no other human subjects participate in any other experiments, refined and improved acoustic analysis could generate important new results into the 21st century. Reports from the Bloomington group are of two types. In the early 1980s, research was undertaken at Indiana University under contract with General Motors Research Laboratories to investigate the feasibility of an ignition interlock system for automobiles based on speech-analysis techniques, preventing ignition if on-board equipment determined from the speech signal that a potential driver was intoxicated.

Consistent speech errors produced under alcohol included vowel and consonant lengthening, consonant deletion, deaffrication, distortion of the phoneme/s/, devoicing, and velarization. Acoustic measurement of intoxication included increased word and sentence durations, increased duration of stop closure, incomplete stop closure in affricates, postvocalic devoicing, lowered F2 and F3, reduction in the ratio of intervowel-to-word duration, higher mean amplitude and fundamental frequency, and increased variability in amplitude and fundamental frequency.

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