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Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom by Carol S. Leonard

By Carol S. Leonard

This e-book examines the heritage of reforms and significant nation interventions affecting Russian agriculture: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Stolypin reforms, the NEP, the Collectivization, Khrushchev reforms, and eventually farm firm privatization within the early Nineteen Nineties. It indicates a trend rising from a political relevant in imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet regimes, and it describes how those reforms have been justified within the identify of the nationwide curiosity in the course of serious crises - swift inflation, army defeat, mass moves, rural unrest, and/or political turmoil. It appears to be like on the outcomes of adversity within the monetary atmosphere for rural habit after reform and at long-run tendencies. It has chapters on estate rights, rural association, and technological switch. It presents a brand new database for measuring agricultural productiveness from 1861 to 1913 and updates those estimates to the current. This booklet is a learn of the guidelines geared toward reorganizing rural construction and their effectiveness in remodeling associations.

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61; Zaionchkovskii (1954), Ch. 2. Hoch (1991). Pintner (1984), p. 240. 34 Agrarian Reform in Russia By the mid-nineteenth century in Russia, as in most European countries, the revenue base grew chiefly by indirect taxation. Indirect taxes amounted to much more than half of all revenues, including from borrowing, yet they were confining and confiscatory. They captured surpluses from the land, from the church, from luxury consumption by elites, including nobles and merchants, from credit rationing, and from extraordinary collections including recruitment.

Thus there were fiscal benefits to agrarian reform in a crisis. Producers were induced to pay heftier long-term net costs than they might otherwise have had to pay, and the state was the beneficiary of any difference. 61 An improvement in taxation, even in small amounts, is difficult to achieve, however, although it can have substantial rewards. Even a marginal improvement in tax revenues with effects realized over a number of years would be dynamically efficient. Where the budget deficit tends to be large, minor upward adjustment of budgetary 57 58 59 60 61 Wortman (2000), pp.

De Brauw et al. (2002), p. 26. Binswanger and Elgin (1984), p. 353; Drazen (2000), p. 403. Delayed reform is seen by Axelrod (1984) as a cooperative game in which rival elites must co-exist, a war of attrition. ”57 In another example, Stalin linked collectivization with the First Five Year Plan (1928–1932). 58 Bundling compensates elites and benefits the state by diluting reform or undercutting the benefits to producers. The Khrushchev price incentive reforms in 1956 are an example. The government’s initial decree (March 6) guaranteed monthly advance payments to collective farm workers.

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