Chemistry

Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty years of progress in by P. Bernier

By P. Bernier

This edited paintings comprises 8 broad, review-type contributions through best scientists within the box of man-made metals. The authors have been invited via the organisers of the overseas convention on technological know-how and know-how of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to check the development of analysis long ago 20 years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sector and assesses the clients for destiny examine.

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The above oxidative polymerization consumes the oxidants stoichiometrically. However, catalytic cycles would be highly favored for industrial mass production. Some catalyst systems, like CuC1-A1C13/O2 and bis(acetylacetonato)(oxo)vanadium(IV), have been tested, but the conductivity obtained is quite low (10-2 S/cm), compared with that of the stoichiometrically prepared polypyrroles [164]. The electrochemical oxidative synthesis of PPy is fast, easy to perform, and no catalyst must be removed to provide materials of high conductivity.

Not surprisingly, in view of the oxidative coupling process, polyphenylenes are also available by electrochemical coupling [79]. 6). It appeared to be more straightforward while trying to find milder and regioselective methods of polyphenylene synthesis to use difunctionalized benzenes as starting compounds. When treating haloaromatic compounds with magnesium metal in the presence of transition metals as catalysts [80] the yellow PPP-material formed is superior to the black product obtained by oxidative coupling, but also possesses relatively low molecular weight (scheme 7 (3)).

The topochemical polymerization of diacetylene derivatives has also been investigated in restricted geometries, namely in Langmuir-Blodgett layers [72] and in chemisorbed monolayers [73]. Thus, 5-alkoxyisophthalic acids have been shown by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to form highly ordered monolayers by physisorption from solution onto graphite substrates. The self-assembly of isophthalic acid derivates containing a diacetylene moiety gave regular, lamellar-type "2D-crystals" with interdigitating alkyl chains in which neighboring diacetylenes fulfill the above requirements for polydiacetylene formation.

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