Environmental Engineering

Advances in Sonochemistry: Ultrasound in Environmental by T.J. Mason, A. Tiehm

By T.J. Mason, A. Tiehm

Ultrasound in Environmental defense makes a speciality of one of many extra major advancements within the topic - environmental remediation - delivering an summary on either the basics and purposes of ultrasound in environmental safeguard, incorporating contemporary learn and state of the art info at the medical foundation, modes of use, and engineering advancements. A large spectrum of themes are coated: reactor layout, sonochemical pollutant degradation, built-in unltrasonic/ organic remedy, ultrasound in disinfection, leaching through ultrasound, and ultrasonically superior removing of suspended solids. Ultrasound is generated and utilized at frequencies from 20 kHz to numerous MHz. The physio-chemical parameters of the sonicated media, reactor layout, utilized depth, and period of sonication, dramatically impact the consequences that may be accomplished. it's was hoping that this compilation will give a contribution to a greater knowing and extra improvement of sonochemistry as a fresh expertise not just for environmental remediation but in addition extra in general. the root of this compilation used to be shaped in the course of a workshop that used to be held on the Technical college of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, in March 1999. This used to be the 1st workshop to be dedicated to 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' and taken jointly event and information from a vast spectrum of disciplines together with chemistry, biology, engineering, gear production, and plant layout.

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Extra resources for Advances in Sonochemistry: Ultrasound in Environmental Protection

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Table 2. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. , not detectable. 2 Simultaneous Sonication and Biodegradation The application of ultrasound at the same time as biodegradation is only possible if the micro-organisms are not damaged by sonication. 1, damage of micro-organisms by ultrasound decreases with increasing frequency. 2 MHz and an ultrasound dose of 300 Wh/l, the oxygen utilisation rate of activated sludge was not a€ected (Figure 1). Therefore, this frequency was chosen [69] 36 ANDREAS TIEHM to study the e€ect of simultaneous sonication on the biodegradation of solid naphthalene and phenanthrene, representing model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 48 48 49 50 50 52 54 55 56 1. 1 Biological Pollutant Degradation Biological degradation is generally considered the most environmentally friendly and cheapest method of pollutant elimination. g. wastewater treatment, treatment of solid wastes, and the remediation of contaminated soil. Nevertheless, there are situations where biological treatment alone does not result in a successful elimination of the target pollutants.

2 Susceptibility of Microbial Species to Ultrasound Damage The nature of a particular micro-organism a€ects its sensitivity to ultrasound. Studies with pure microbial cultures have revealed that the following factors determine the susceptibility of micro-organisms to ultrasonic disintegration: . Cell size: damage of micro-organisms increases with increasing size. Wase and Patel [55] found a linear relationship between the mean cell volume and the disintegration rate of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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